Artificial Intelligence Landmark: Deep Blue
We said in the introduction that Deep Blue stands as a landmark in the development of Artificial Intelligence. Without doubt, the defeat of Kasparov had a big impact on Chess research, which declined as a result, but certainly did not cease, as the latest published research shows.
However, although many will attribute Deep Blue with intelligence, it is really just a powerful computer that was able to search millions of positions a second. There is no doubt that the underlying algorithms are extremely sophisticated, but intelligent, in the human sense of the word? Perhaps not.
Research still continues into Chess but Go is probably now the game that is receiving the most attention from the AI research community. Checkers has also received considerable attention in the recent years, some which could be considered to evolve an intelligent player, although many would argue against that as well, but we’ll leave that discussion for another time.
Iqbal A., van der Heijden H., Guid M., Makhmali A. Evaluating the Aesthetics of Endgame Studies: A Computational Model of Human Aesthetic Perception. (2012). IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 4(3):178-191. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Fenner T., Levene M., Loizou G. A Discrete Evolutionary Model for Chess Players’ Ratings. (2012). IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 4(2):84-93. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Samadi, M. Asr, F.T. ; Schaeffer, J. ; Azimifar, Z. Extending the Applicability of Pattern and Endgame Databases. (2009). IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 1(1):28-38. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Campbell M., Hoane A.J. Jr. and Hsu F. Deep Blue. (2002). Artificial Intelligence, 134(1-2):57-83. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Campbell M. Knowledge discovery in Deep Blue. (1999). Communications of the ACM 42(11):65–67. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Hsu F. Behind Deep Blue. (2002). Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2002. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Hsu F.-h., Anantharman T., Campbell M. And Nowatzyk A. (1990). A Grandmaster chess machine. Scientific American, 44–50. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Hsu F., Anantharman T.S., Campbell M.S, Nowatzyk A. Deep Thought. (1990). In Marsland T.A., Schaeffer J. (Eds.), Computers, Chess, and Cognition. Springer, Berlin, 55–78. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Hsu F. A two-million moves/s CMOS single-chip chess move generator. (1987). IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 22(5):841–846. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Decoding Science. One article at a time.